ืื™ืš ืœื—ื˜ื ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ (ื•ืžืชื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืขื’ื™ืœ ื—ื“ืฉ)

ืื™ืš ืžื—ื˜ืื™ื ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ

ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ืช ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืœื• ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœืฉื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืœื•ืง ืื• โ€œืœื˜ืขื•ืโ€ ืงืฆืช ืžื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืงืฉื•ืจ ืœืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ. ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืœืžื” โ€“ ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ืงื™ืฉื•ื˜ ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืื• ืœืฉื ื•ืช, ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืื• ืœืžืฆื‘ ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉืœืš. ืื ืืช ืฉื•ืงืœืช ืœื ืงื‘ ืืช ื”ืืฃ ืฉืœืš, ืื• ืฉืืช ืื—ืจื™ ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš, ื™ืฉ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ืจื‘ื” ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื•ื”ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืื™ืš ืœื—ื˜ื ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ โ€“ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœืš ื•ืœืžื ื•ืข ื–ื™ื”ื•ื.

ื•ื–ื• ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ื›ื•ืชื‘ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืคื•ืกื˜ ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ื.

ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœืื—ืจ ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืืฃ

ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืžื• ืงืขืงื•ืข, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฉืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืคืฆืข ืคืชื•ื— ื‘ืขื•ืจ, ื”ื“ื•ืจืฉ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืžืชืื™ื. ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื ืœื•ื•ื™ื ืœืชื”ืœื™ืš ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืืฃ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ืžื™ืงื•ืžื• ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืขืœื™ื•ื ื” ืœื’ื‘ื•ืช: ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื•ืจื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื—ืœืœ ื”ืกื™ื ื•ืก ืฉืœื ื•, ื›ืœ ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ืžื™ืจ ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช. ื”ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื•ืช ื”ื ื•ื‘ืขื•ืช ืžื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืืฃ ื”ืŸ ื“ื™ืžื•ื, ืขื’ื™ืœ ืจื•ืคืฃ, ืฆืœืงื•ืช ืื• ื–ื™ื”ื•ื.

ืื—ืจื™ ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ, ื”ืžืงื•ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื›ืžื” ืฉืœื‘ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืจื™ืคื•ื™, ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื”ืงืคื™ื“ ืขืœ ื—ื™ื˜ื•ื™ ื”ืคืฆืข ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ืฉื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื—ืœืงื”. ื”ืงืคื™ื“ื™ ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ืžืกื™ืจื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืฉืœืš ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืฉืœื•, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืจืงืžื” ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฆื•ืžื—ืช ืžื—ื“ืฉ โ€“ ื•ื–ื” ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ื• ื”ื™ื ืจื’ื™ืฉื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื–ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืžืื“ ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ื›ืื‘, ื—ื•ื ืื• ื“ื™ืžื•ื ืงืœ ื’ื ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ื”ื–ื•, ืื– ืืœ ืชื ื™ื—ื™ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืชืกืžื™ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื–ื™ื”ื•ื. ื”ืชืกืžื™ื ื™ื ื”ืืœื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ืžืฉืš ืขื“ ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืžืจื’ืข ื”ื ื™ืงื•ื‘ (ื•ื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฉื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืžื”ื ื™ืงื•ื‘) โ€“ ืืš ื”ื™ืขื“ืจ ืกื™ืžืคื˜ื•ืžื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืฉืœืš ื ืจืคื ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื•ื•ื“ื ืฉืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื—ืœืงื” ื›ื›ืœ ื”ืืคืฉืจ, ืฉื˜ืคื™ ืืช ื”ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืช ื ื•ื’ืขืช ื‘ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืื• ื‘ืขื’ื™ืœ ืขืฆืžื•. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื ื”ื•ื’ื” ืœื ื™ืงื•ื™ ืขื’ื™ืœื™ื, ืืœ ืชืฉืจื™ ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืžื™ื ื›ืœืฉื”ื (ืžืœื‘ื“ ืชืžื™ืกืช ืžืœื—) ืขื“ ืœื”ื—ืœืžื” ืžืœืื”. ื–ื” ื’ื ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ืชืจื—ืง ืžื‘ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉื—ื™ื™ื”, ืกืื•ื ื•ืช ืื• ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืจื™ืคื•ื™. ื”ืงืคื™ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ื’ื ืžื”ื—ืœืคื” ืฉืœ ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื”ื—ืœืžื” โ€“ ืืช ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœืคืชื•ื— ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืืช ื”ืคืฆืข ื•ืœื”ืื˜ ืืช ื”ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืฉืœื•, ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื.

ืื– ื›ืžื” ื–ืžืŸ ื™ื™ืงื— ืœืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืฉืœืš ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืœื?

ื–ื” ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ืžื™ืงื•ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ, ื•ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืฉืชืชื ื™ ืœื•. ืœื ื–ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื‘ื ื—ื™ืจ ื™ื™ืงื— ื›ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฉื” ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื, ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ืขื•ื‘ื™ ื•ื‘ืกื•ื’ ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ. ืกื•ื’ื™ ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืกืคื˜ื•ื ืื• ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ื’ืฉืจ ื”ืืฃ, ืœืขื•ืžืช ื–ืืช, ื™ื—ืœื™ืžื• ืœืื—ืจ ืžืฉื”ื• ื›ืžื• ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื™ื ืขื“ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื.

ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ

ืื™ืš ืœื—ื˜ื ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ

ืขืœื™ืš ืœื—ื˜ื ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืืฃ ืฉืœืš ืคืขืžื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื, ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื, ืขื“ ืœื”ืฉืœืžืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื”ืžืœื. ืืช ื”ื ื™ืงื•ื™ ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขื ืชืžื™ืกืช ืžื™ ืžืœื—, ืื•ืชื” ืชื•ื›ืœื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ืื• ืœืงื ื•ืช ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืžืจืงื—ืช ืื• ืžื›ื•ืœืช (ืื• ื‘ืจืฉืช).

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ืกืช ืžืœื— ืžืฉืœืš, ืขืจื‘ื‘ื™ ื›ืคื™ืช ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ืžืœื— ื™ื (ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื•ืขืฉืจ ื‘ื™ื•ื“) ืขื ืœื™ื˜ืจ ืžื™ื ืžื–ื•ืงืงื™ื.

ืื ืืชื ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื—ื˜ื ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื”ืชืžื™ืกื”, ื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื™ ื›ื•ืก ืงื˜ื ื” ืื• ืงืขืจื” ืœืฆื“ ื”ืืฃ ืฉืœืš ื•ื”ืจื›ื™ื ื™ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžื ื•ืงื‘ ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืžื™ื. ื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื™ ืืช ื”ืชืžื™ืกื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืžืฉืš ื›ื—ืžืฉ ื“ืงื•ืช, ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ืฉื˜ืคื™ ืืช ื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื‘ืžื™ื ื ืงื™ื™ื ื•ื ื’ื‘ื™ ืขื ืžื’ื‘ืช ื ื™ื™ืจ ื ืงื™ื™ื”. ืื ืืช ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ืกืคืจื™ื™, ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืจืกืกื™ ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ื•ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžืฉืš 5 ืฉื ื™ื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืžื’ื‘ืช ื ื™ื™ืจ.

ื”ื™ืžื ืขื™ ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืฆืžืจ ื’ืคืŸ ืื• ื‘ืžื’ื‘ืช ื‘ื“ ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืกื™ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ืชืคืก ื‘ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’.

ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื›ืš, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ื ืงื™ ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืžื• ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืขืฆืžื•. ืฉื˜ืคื™ ืืช ื”ืžืชื›ืช ืงืœื•ืช ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืกื‘ื•ืŸ ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืคืขื ื‘ื™ื•ื (ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžืงืœื—ืช) ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืžืžื ื• ื›ืœ ืฉืืจื™ื•ืช ืœื›ืœื•ืš ืื• ื—ื™ื™ื“ืงื™ื.

ืžื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืื ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืฉืœืš ื”ื–ื“ื”ื

ื–ื” ื ื•ืจืžืœื™ ืฉืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ื›ืื‘, ื™ื“ืžื ืื• ื™ืคืจื™ืฉ ืžื•ื’ืœื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื—ืœื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื•ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื’ื™ืจื•ื™ ืื• ืžื˜ืจื“ ืงืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืขื•ืจืจ ื“ืื’ื”. ืื ื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื ืจืื” ืื“ื•ื ื‘ื•ื”ืง ืื• ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื—ืจื™ื’ื” ืื—ืจืช, ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื”ืคืจืฉื•ืช ืกืžื™ื›ื•ืช ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืื• ื™ืจื•ืงื•ืช ืžืžื ื• (ืกืœื™ื—ื” ืขืœ ื”ืชื™ืื•ืจ ื”ื’ืจืคื™), ืื• ืฉื ื•ืฆืจื• ื‘ื• ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ื•ืช โ€“ ืขืœื™ืš ืœืคื ื•ืช ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืจืคื•ืื™.

ื™ืฉ ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ืชืกืžื™ื ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ื ืจืื™ื ืœืขื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ, ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืจื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืœืžื’ืข, ืจื™ื— ืจืข ืžื”ืžืงื•ื, ื’ื™ืจื•ื“ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ืื• ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื. ื›ืœ ื”ืกื™ืžืคื˜ื•ืžื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื”ื ืกื™ืžื ื™ื ืฉืžืขื™ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืš ืฉืืช ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืจืื•ืช ืจื•ืคื ื‘ื”ืงื“ื ื”ืืคืฉืจื™.

ืžืชื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ?

ื—ืœืง ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืœืฉืืœื” โ€œืื™ืš ืœื—ื˜ื ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃโ€ ื”ื•ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื ืœื’ืขืช ื‘ื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™. ื•ืื›ืŸ, ื–ื” ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ ืฉืœื ืชื™ื’ืขื™, ืชื–ื™ื–ื™ ืื• ืชื—ืœื™ืคื™ ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ ืขื“ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืชืจืคื ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ.

ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื”ืžืชื™ืŸ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉื” ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื โ€“ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื ื” ื”ืžื™ืงื•ื ืฉืœ ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ โ€“ ืืš ื›ื›ืœ ืฉืชืชื ื™ ืœืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืฉืœืš ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื, ื›ืš ืชื•ื›ืœื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœื”ืกืจื”. ืื™ื ื“ื™ืงืฆื™ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ื”ื™ื ืฉืืช ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื ืกื•ื‘ืœืช ืžื›ืื‘ ืื• ืื™ ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื›ืœืฉื”ื™ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ. ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืืช ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืกื•ื‘ืœืช โ€“ ื–ื” ืขื•ื“ ืœื ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืขื’ื™ืœ.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื”

ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ ืœื ื™ื•ืฆื’ ื‘ืืชืจ.