ืžืื™ื–ื” ื’ื™ืœ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงืขืงื•ืข, ื•ืžื” ื›ื“ืื™ ืœืฉืงื•ืœ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืขื•ืฉื™ื ืื—ื“

ื’ื™ืœ ืงืขืงื•ืข

ื”ืฉืืœื” โ€œืžืื™ื–ื” ื’ื™ืœ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงืขืงื•ืขโ€ ื”ื™ื ืฉืืœื” ืขื ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืœื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื”.

ื˜ื•ื‘, ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื—ื•ืงื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื›ืŸ ืคืฉื•ื˜ื” โ€“ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื‘ื• ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื‘ืฆืข ืงืขืงื•ืข ืœืœื ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื•ืจื™ื ื”ื•ื 16. ื›ืš ืฉืื ืืชื ืžืขืœ ื’ื™ืœ 16 ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื–ื”ื•ืช ืฉืžื’ื‘ื” ืืช ื–ื”, ืืชื ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื. ืื ืืชื ืžืชื—ืช ืœื’ื™ืœ 16 ืืชื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงืขืงื•ืข, ืืš ืชื™ื“ืจืฉื• ืœืกืคืง ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื•ืจื™ื (ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื”ื•ืจื” ืื—ื“). ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืžืชื—ืช ืœื’ื™ืœ 16 ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช? ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื” ื‘ื—ื•ืง.

ืื– ืœืžื” ืื ื—ื ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื”ืฉืืœื” ื”ื™ื ืœื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื”? ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื”ื’ื‘ืœื” ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ืช, ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืฉืืœื” โ€œื‘ืื™ื–ื” ื’ื™ืœ ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงืขืงื•ืขโ€. ื•ืคื” ื›ื‘ืจ ื™ืฉ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉื™ืงื•ืœื™ื.

ื ืจื—ื™ื‘.

ืžืื™ื–ื” ื’ื™ืœ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงืขืงื•ืข โ€“ ื”ื—ื•ืง

ื ืชื—ื™ืœ ืขื ื”ื‘ืกื™ืก ื”ื—ื•ืงื™. ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืคืชื™ืข, ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื‘ื• ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื‘ืฆืข ืงืขืงื•ืข ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœ ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื‘ื—ื•ืง ืจื™ืฉื•ื™ ืขืกืงื™ื (ื•ืื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื“ื•ื™ืงื™ื โ€“ ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ืžืกืคืจ 19 ืœื—ื•ืง, ืžืฉื ืช 2002), ื•ืœื ื‘ื—ื•ืง ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™. ื”ื•ื ืœื ืžืคืจื˜ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™, ืื‘ืœ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืฉื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ืขืกืง, ืžื›ื•ืŸ ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืชืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืขืกืง, ื•ื”ื•ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื–ื”ื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ืงืขืงื•ืข.

ืขื“ 2002 ืœื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื”ื’ื‘ืœื” ื‘ื—ื•ืง, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืชื•ืงืŸ ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ืžืื•ืชืŸ ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื’ืœืœืŸ ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœื—ื›ื•ืช ืงืฆืช ืขื ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื:

  • ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ืื™ื ื ื ื™ืชื ื™ื ืœืžื—ื™ืงื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ืžื—ื•ืงืง ืจืฆื” ืœื•ื•ื“ื ืฉื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ื ืขืฉื™ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืงื•ืœ ื“ืขืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื“ื ื‘ื•ื’ืจ ื“ื™ื•.
  • ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ื ืขืฉื™ื โ€“ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื โ€“ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืขืกืงื™ืช, ืชืžื•ืจืช ื›ืกืฃ (ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืœืžืงืขืงืข ื™ืฉ โ€œืื™ื ื˜ืจืกโ€ ืœื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ืคืขื•ืœื”).
  • ื‘ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ ื—ืฉื•ืคื™ื ืœื”ืฉืคืขื•ืช ื˜ืจื ื“ื™ื ื•ืื•ืคื ื” โ€“ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื’ืจื•ืจ ื—ืจื˜ื•ืช (ืืช ื™ื•ื“ืขืช ืขืœ ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžื“ื‘ืจืช, ืœื›ื•ืœื ื• ื™ืฉ ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ืžื‘ื™ื›ื•ืช ืžื”ื’ื™ืœืื™ื ื”ืืœื•).

ืื’ื‘, ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื ื“ื™ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื‘ื”ืงืฉืจ ื”ื–ื”. ื‘ืืจื”โ€ื‘ ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื‘ืฆืข ืงืขืงื•ืข ื›ื‘ืจ ืžื’ื™ืœ 14, ื•ืžื ื’ื“ ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช (ืœืžืฉืœ ื ื™ื•-ื™ื•ืจืง) ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ื”ื’ื‘ืœื” ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื’ื™ืœ 18. ื›ื โ€ืœ ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื” โ€“ ื”ื”ื’ื‘ืœื” ื ืขื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื™ืœ 16 (ืื•ืกื˜ืจื™ื” ืœืžืฉืœ) ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื™ืœ 18 (ื‘ืฆืจืคืช).

ืงืขืงื•ืข

ืขื•ื“ ืฉื™ืงื•ืœื™ื

ืื ืืชื ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื (ืื• ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื ืฉืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงืขืงื•ืข), ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืฉืœื• โ€“ ืœืžืงืจื” ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืชืชื—ืจื˜ื•. ืื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืงืขืงื•ืข ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ืจืฆื•ื™ โ€œืœื ืœื”ืฉืชื’ืขโ€, ื•ืœืœื›ืช ืขืœ ืžืฉื”ื• ืกื•ืœื™ื“ื™, ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืงืœ ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ื‘ืžื™ื“ืช ื”ืฆื•ืจืš. ื”ื ื” ื›ืžื” ื˜ื™ืคื™ื:

ื’ื•ื“ืœ โ€“ ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื”ืงืขืงื•ืข ืงื˜ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื›ืš ืงืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืžืชื—ืจื˜ื™ื. ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืกื‘ื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉื˜ื— ืฉืœ 3 ืกโ€ืž ืขืœ 3 ืกโ€ืž, ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื–ื” ื”ื”ืกืจื” ืฉืœ ื”ืงืขืงื•ืข ืชื”ื™ื” ื“ื™ ืกื™ื•ื˜.

ืฆื‘ืข โ€“ ื—ืœืง ืžื”ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื ื™ืชื ื™ื ืœื”ืกืจื” ื‘ืœื™ื™ื–ืจ ื•ื—ืœืง ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ื”ืชืขืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ื™ืจื•ืจื’ื™ืช. ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื›ื”ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ ืฉื—ื•ืจ, ื›ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืกื’ื•ืœ โ€“ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืœื™ื™ื–ืจ. ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื•ื”ืงื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ ื•ืจื•ื“, ืฆื”ื•ื‘ ื•ืื“ื•ื โ€“ ื›ื ืจืื” ืฉืœื. ืงื—ื• ืืช ื–ื” ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ.

ืžื™ืงื•ื โ€“ ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืกืชื™ืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื’ื•ื“ โ€“ ืœืžืฉืœ ื”ื›ืชืฃ, ื”ื’ื‘ ืื• ื”ืงืจืกื•ืœ (ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืžื›ื ืกื™ื™ื ืืจื•ื›ื™ื) โ€“ ื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืงืขืงื•ืข ืจืืฉื•ืŸ. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœื”ืกืชื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืงืขืงื•ืข ืขื ื‘ื™ื’ื•ื“, ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ื›ืืœื• ื’ื ืงืœื™ื ื™ื—ืกื™ืช ืœื”ืกืจื”, ื•ื–ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœืงืขืงื•ืข ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืขื™ื™ืชื™ื™ื ืœื”ืกืจื” ื›ืžื• ื”ื–ืจื•ืข ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ืช, ื”ืืžื”, ื”ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ื”ืคื ื™ื, ื‘ื”ื ื”ืขื•ืจ ืื™ื ื• ืžืชืจืคื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืœื ื•ื™ืฉ ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ื™ืฉืืจื•ืช ืฆืœืงื•ืช.

ื”ืžืงืขืงืข โ€“ ื—ื•ื‘ื” โ€“ ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื“ื’ื™ืฉ ืืช ื–ื” ืžืกืคื™ืง โ€“ ืœืœื›ืช ืœืžืงืขืงืข ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™. ืžื” ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ? ืื—ื“ ืฉื ืจืื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™, ืฉืฉื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ืง (ื•ื‘ื•ื“ืง ืช.ื–), ื•ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื ื”ื ื” ืžืžื•ื ื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช (ื‘ื“ืงื• ื‘ืจืฉืช).

ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื•ื•ื“ืื• ื›ื™ ื”ืžืงืขืงืข ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืื™ื›ื•ืชื™ ื•ืฉื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื•ืช ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš. ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืžืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืื• ืงืขืงื•ืข ื–ื” ืžืฉื”ื• ืžืื“ ืžืื“ ืžื‘ืืก.

ื’ื™ืœ ืžืชืื™ื ืœืงืขืงื•ืข

ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืงืขืงื•ืข ื—ื“ืฉ

ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข, ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ืงืขืงื•ืข ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืžื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืื• ื”ืฆื˜ืœืงื•ืช ื•ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืจืื” ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื ืฉืœื• โ€“ ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื ืฉื™ื ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ื•ื˜ื™ื ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื”ื โ€œื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื ื•ืฆื—ื™ืโ€ ื•ืœื”ื–ื ื™ื— ืืช ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื”ืชืื. ื”ื ื” ื›ืžื” ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ืฉื›ื“ืื™ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ื:

  • ืžื’ืข ื‘ืงืขืงื•ืข ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ื ืงื™ื•ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“.
  • ืฉื˜ื™ืคื” ื‘ืกื‘ื•ืŸ ืื ื˜ื™-ื‘ืงื˜ืจื™ืืœื™ ื‘ืœื‘ื“.
  • ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉย ื‘ืžืฉื—ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืงืขืงื•ืข.
  • ื”ื™ืžื ืขื•ืช ืžื—ืฉื™ืคื” ืžืžื•ืฉื›ืช ืœืฉืžืฉ.

ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ, ืงืขืงื•ืข ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื ืชื•ืš ืžืกืคืจ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช. ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื”, ืœื ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ืงื™ืœื•ืฃ, ื ืคื™ื—ื•ืช ืื• ืื“ืžื•ืžื™ื•ืช. ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืขื•ื“ ื˜ื™ืคื™ื? ืžื•ื–ืžื ื™ื ืœืคื•ืกื˜ ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืฉื›ืชื‘ื ื• ื‘ื ื•ืฉื.

ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื ื•ืกืคืช:ย ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืงืขืงื•ืข: ื›ืš ืชืฉืžืจื™ ืขืœ ื”ืงืขืงื•ืข ืฉืœืš (ื•ืžืชื™ ื›ื“ืื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืจื•ืคื)

ื›ืชื™ื‘ืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื”

ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ ืœื ื™ื•ืฆื’ ื‘ืืชืจ.