ืœืง ืฆื‘ืื™ ืชืงื ื™: ืื™ื–ื” ืฆื‘ืข ืœืง ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื—ื™ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฆื‘ื?

ืฆื‘ืขื™ ืœืง

ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš ืœืคื•ืกื˜ ืฉื›ืชื‘ื ื• ื‘ื–ืžื ื• ืขืœ ืื™ืคื•ืจ ื‘ืฆื‘ื ืงื™ื‘ืœื ื• ื›ืžื” ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื•ืช ืœื’ื•ื•ื ื™ ื”ืœืง ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ื‘ืฆื”โ€ืœ ื•ื”ื—ืœื˜ื ื• ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉื•ื•ืช ืคื•ืกื˜ ื ืคืจื“. ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื™ ืœืงืจื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืื™ืœื• ืฆื‘ืขื™ ืœืง ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ืœื—ื™ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืกื“ื™ืจ, ืื™ืœื• ืœืžืฉืจืชื•ืช ืงื‘ืข ื•ืžื” ืžื•ื’ื“ืจ ื‘ืชื•ืจ โ€œืœืง ืฆื‘ืื™ ืชืงื ื™โ€.

ย ื•ื›ืžื• ืฉืฆื™ื™ื ืชื™ ื’ื ื‘ืคื•ืกื˜ ื”ืงื•ื“ื โ€“ ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ืขื‘ืจื• ืœื ืžืขื˜ ืฉื ื™ื ืžืื– ืฉื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื—ื™ื™ืœืช, ืœื“ืื‘ื•ื ื™ ื”ืขื‘ืจืชื™ ืืช ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืกื™ืก ืฉื›ืœืœ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืฆื‘ืื™ืช โ€“ ื›ืš ืฉื‘ืขืœ ื›ื•ืจื—ื™ ื ืืœืฆืชื™ ืœื”ืงืคื™ื“ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื›ืœืœ ื•ื›ืœืœ, ื•ืื ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืœื”ื•ื“ื•ืช โ€“ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืฆืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืœื™ ื‘ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ.

ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ืื ื™ ื–ื•ื›ืจืช ืืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ืœืœ ื‘ื• ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืœืงืจืืช ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื•ื ื™ืกื™ืชื™ ืœื”ืชื—ื›ื ื•ื”ื’ืขืชื™ ืœื‘ืกื™ืก ืขืย ืœืง ืื“ื•ื.ย ืœื ื”ืกืคืงืชื™ ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžืžื ื• ื—ืžืฉ ื“ืงื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ืขืฆืจืชื™ ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœื‘ืกื™ืก ื•ื ืฉืœื—ืชื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฉืช ืคื ื™ื ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื—ื“ืจ ื•ืœื”ืจื™ื— ื›ืžื• ืืฆื˜ื•ืŸ ืœืžืฉืš ืฉืืจ ื”ื™ื•ื.

ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงืจื”, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ืชืกื‘ืœื™ ืžื–ื” ื›ืžื•ื ื™, ื”ื ื” ืกื™ื›ื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืฆื”โ€ืœ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืœืง ืœืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื.

ืœืง ืฆื‘ืื™ ืชืงื ื™ โ€“ ืžื” ื”ืคืงื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจืช?

ื‘ืคืงื•ื“ืช ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ื”ื•ืคืขื” ื•ื”ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืฉืœ ืฆื”โ€ืœ ื”ื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืกื•ืช ืœ-โ€œืœืง ืชืงื ื™โ€ ืžื•ืคื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ ืกืขื™ืคื™ื:

89. ื—ื™ื™ืœืช (ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื•ืงื‘ืข) ืจืฉืื™ืช ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืืช ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ื•ืืช ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœืง ืฉืงื•ืฃ, ื‘ืœืง ื•ืจื•ื“ ื‘ื”ื™ืจ ืื• ื‘ืœืง ืœื‘ืŸ ืคื ื™ื ื”, ืœืœื ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื–ื•ื”ืจื™ื, ื–ืจื—ื ื™ื™ื ื•ืžื ืฆื ืฆื™ื. ืฆื‘ืข ื”ืœืง ื™ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื™ื“ ื•ื™ื™ืžืจื— ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจืŸ ื‘ืžืœื•ืื” ื•ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื›ืœืœื•ืชืŸ, ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืœื•ืœ ืงื™ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื, ืคืจื˜ ืœืฆื‘ืข ืื—ื“ ืื—ื™ื“ ื›ืืžื•ืจ.

90. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืืžื•ืจ ื‘ืกืขื™ืฃ ื”ืงื•ื“ื, ื—ื™ื™ืœืช (ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื•ืงื‘ืข) ืจืฉืื™ืช ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืืช ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ื•ืืช ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ ืœืง (ืคืจื ืฅโ€™) ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืฆื‘ืขื™ ื”ืœืง ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื.

ืžืชื•ืš ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ื”ื•ืคืขื” ืฉืœ ืฆื”โ€ืœ (ืงื™ืฉื•ืจ ืœ-PDF ื”ืžืœื)

ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจื’ื•ืขื” ื›ืœ ืขื•ื“ ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš ืขืย ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขื™ื: ืœืง ื•ืจื•ื“ ื‘ื”ื™ืจ, ืœื‘ืŸ ืคื ื™ื ื” ื•ืœืง ืฉืงื•ืฃ. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื ื•ืขย ืขื ืœืง ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืคืจื ืฅโ€™ ื‘ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื”ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“.

ืื—ื“ ื”ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื”ื•ื ื”-โ€œืคืื ื™ ื‘ืื ื™โ€. ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“, ื”ื•ื ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืžืื“ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืžืชืื™ื ืœื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ืืฉืจ ืจื•ืฆื•ืช ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ืžื˜ื•ืคื—ื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืžื ื’ื“ ืœื ืจื•ืฆื•ืช ืœืง ืฆื‘ืขื•ื ื™ ืžื“ื™, ืฉื›ื™ื“ื•ืข ื“ื•ืจืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืชื—ื–ื•ืงื” ืขื ื›ืœ ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจืŸ ืื• ื”ืชืงืœืคื•ืช. ื•ืžืฆื“ ืฉื ื™, ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืžืื“ ืืกืชื˜ื™, ืฉืขื ื”ืฉื ื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ืฆืœื™ื— ืœื”ืฉืชื—ืœ ืœืจืฉื™ืžืช ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ ื”ืœืง ื”ืชืงื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฆื”โ€ืœ, ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ืคืš ืื•ืชื• ืœื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืœืง ื”ืื•ืœื˜ื™ืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ืœื•ืช.

ืชื—ืœื™ืฃ ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ืœืง โ€œืžืจืฉืžืœื•โ€ ืฉืœ ืืกืกื™. ื‘ืคื•ืกื˜ ื”ื‘ื ื”ืฉื•ื•ื™ื ื• ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื•ื”ืฆื’ื ื• ืืช ืฉืืจ ื”ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืงื™ื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืฉื•ืง ื‘ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื.

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ื: ืœื—ื™ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืืช ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ ื•ืจื•ื“, ืคื ื™ื ื”, ืฉืงื•ืฃ ื•ืคืจื ืฅโ€™.

ืื‘ืœ ืื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ื›ื ืกืช ืœืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืงื‘ืข, ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช.

ืœืง ืฆื‘ืื™ ืชืงื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืฃ

ืœืง ืฆื‘ืื™ ืชืงื ื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ืฉื•ืช ืงื‘ืข

ื”ื—ืœ ืž-13 ืœื™ื ื•ืืจ 2020, ื”ืฆื‘ื ืื™ืฉืจ ื›ืžื” ืฆื‘ืขื™ ืœืง ื”ื ื•ืกืคื™ื ืœืฆื‘ื™ืขืช ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ืœืžืฉืจืชื•ืช ื”ืงื‘ืข ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื”ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ื›ื™ื•ื. ื”ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ื”ื ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขย ื•ืจื•ื“ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื•, ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขย ืกื’ื•ืœ ื‘ื”ื™ืจ, ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขย ื—ื•ื ื‘ื”ื™ืจ, ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขย ืืคื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื™ืจ, ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขย ื‘ื•ืจื“ื• ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืขย ืฉื—ื•ืจ.

ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืœืง ืื“ื•ื ื”ื•ื ืžืื•ืฉืจ ื’ื ื›ืŸ, ืืš ื™ืฉ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื” ืžืื“ ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ืช ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื’ื•ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ืคืงื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจืช ื›ื™: โ€œื”ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืื“ื•ื ื”ื™ื ื• ืื—ื™ื“ ื•ืœื ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ื›ืœืœ ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ ื”ืื“ื•ื. ื”ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืื“ื•ื ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืฉืžืฉ ืœืคืจื™ื˜ื™ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืฆื‘ืื™ื™ื (ื›ื’ื•ืŸ: ืกื™ื›ื•ืช, ืจืงืข ืœื“ืจื’ื•ืช ื•ื›ื•โ€™).โ€

ืฉื™ืžื™ ืœื‘ ืฉื™ืฉ ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื’ื•ื•ืŸ:

  • ืœืœื ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื–ื•ื”ืจื™ื, ืœืœื ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื–ืจื—ื ื™ื™ื ื•ืžื ืฆื ืฆื™ื.
  • ืฆื‘ืข ื”ืœืง ื™ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื™ื“ ื•ื™ื™ืžืจื— ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจืŸ ื‘ืžืœื•ืื” ื•ืขืœ ื”ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ื›ื•ืœืŸ, ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืœื•ืœ ืงื™ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื, ืืœื ืฆื‘ืข ืื—ื“ ืื—ื™ื“ ื›ืืžื•ืจ.
  • ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช ื™ื”ื™ื• ืฆื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ืื—ื™ื“.
ืœืง ืฆื‘ืขื•ื ื™ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื ืฉื•ืช ืงื‘ืข

ื•ืžื” ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืœืง ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื?

ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื”, ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืžืจื•ื— ื‘ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื”ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ืฉื•ื ื”.

ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ืคืงื•ื“ื” ืžืฆื™ื™ื ืช: โ€œืœืžืขืŸ ื”ืกืจ ืกืคืง, ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืขื” ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืืช ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื”ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ืฉื•ื ื” ืžืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื”ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืฆื‘ืขื™ื ืืœื” ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ืœืคื™ ื”ื•ืจืื” ื–ื•โ€.

ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื ื•ืกืคืช: ืื™ืš ืœืžืจื•ื— ืœืง ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื โ€“ ืžื“ืจื™ืš

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ื

ืื ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืกื›ื ืืช ื”ืคืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืคืฉื•ื˜ื”, ืื’ื™ื“ ื›ืš:

ืืช ื—ื™ื™ืœืช ื‘ื—ื•ื‘ื”? ืชื•ืจื™ื“ื™ ืืช ื”ืจืืฉ ื•ืฉื™ืžื™ ืœืง ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ื™ื—ืกื™ืช, ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ืœื•ื˜.

ืืช ื—ื™ื™ืœืช ื‘ืงื‘ืข? ื›ืŸ, ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืš ืงืฆืช ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ ืื‘ืœ ืืœ ืชืชืคื–ืจื™ ืœื ื•, ื—ืžื•ื“ื”.

ืื‘ืœ ืื ืืช ืœืงืจืืช ืื• ืื—ืจื™ ื”ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ, ื”ื ื” ื›ืžื” ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช ืฉื™ืืคืฉืจื• ืœืš ืœืคืฆื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืฉื ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ื ืขื ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ (ื•ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื”ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืฆื‘ืื™ื•ืช) ืฉืืคืฉืจ:

ื•ื–ื”ื• ืœื”ื™ื•ื. ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช, ืื• ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืš ืฉืืœื” ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ืช ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืื ืžื•ืชืจ ืื™ืคื•ืจ ืžืกื•ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ื โ€“ ืืฉืžื— ืœื ืกื•ืช ื•ืœืขื–ื•ืจ, ื‘ืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช (ืžืžืฉ ืคื” ืœืžื˜ื”).

ื›ืชื™ื‘ืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื”

ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ ืœื ื™ื•ืฆื’ ื‘ืืชืจ. ืฉื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื *