ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื” ืœืคื ื™ื ื•ืขื•ื“ ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืงืคืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœืขื•ืจ ืฉืœื ื•

ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื”

ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืžื›ื™ืจื•ืช ืืช ื”ืงืคื” ื‘ืชื•ืจ ื”ืžืฉืงื” ืžืจื™ื ื”ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ื•ืžืขื•ื“ื“ ื—ื™ืœื•ืฃ ื”ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื. ื•ื‘ื•ืื™ ื ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื–ื” โ€“ ื’ื ืื ื–ื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืฉื”, ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉืœื• ื‘ื’ืŸ ืขื“ืŸ ืžื•ื‘ื˜ื—. ืื‘ืœ ืžืกืชื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ืขื•ื“. ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœื ื•ื’ื“ื™ ื”ื—ืžืฆื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื•, ื”ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ื ืœื”ื™ืœื—ื ื‘ืจื“ื™ืงืœื™ื ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ื™ื, ื”ืงืคื” ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืชื•ืคืก ืžืงื•ื ืฉืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ื— ืฉืœื ื•, ื•ื–ื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉ ืžืงื•ื‘ืœ ืœืฉืžื•ืข ืขืœ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื•ืฉื•ืช ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื” ืœืคื ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืงื‘ื•ืข.

ืœืžืขืฉื”, ื”ืื’ื•ื“ื” ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ืช ืœื›ื™ืžื™ื” ืžืฆืื” ื›ื™ ืงืคื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื ื•ื’ื“ื™ ื—ืžืฆื•ืŸ ื‘ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช โ€“ ืืคื™ืœื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžืฉืงืื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื•ื’ื“ื™ ื—ืžืฆื•ืŸ, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืชื” ืื• ื™ื™ืŸ (ืžืงื•ืจ). ืืš ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื›ื•ืก ืงืคื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืกืคืง ื ื•ื’ื“ื™ ื—ืžืฆื•ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืคื ื™ืžื™, ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉื”ืงืคื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืชืช ืœืขื•ืจ ื”ืคื ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื”ื›ื ืช ืžืกื™ื›ื” ื‘ื™ืชื™ืช, ื•ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื’ืจื’ื™ืจื™ ืงืคื” ื˜ื—ื•ื ื™ื.

ืื– ืžื” ื”ื ืื•ืชื ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ืžืกื›ืช ืงืคื” ืœืคื ื™ื, ื•ืื™ืš ืชื•ื›ืœื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืŸ ืžืชื›ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื™ื™ื?

ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื™ ืœืงืจื•ื.

ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืงืคื” ืœืขื•ืจ ื”ืคื ื™ื

ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืงืคื” ืžืฆื™ืข ืœืขื•ืจ ื”ืคื ื™ื.

ื”ืคื—ืชืช ืฆืœื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืก

ืงืคื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ื”ืคื—ืชืช ืžืจืื” ื”ืฆืœื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืก ืขืœ ื”ืขื•ืจ. ืœืคื™ ื”ื˜ืขื ื”, ื–ื” ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ืงืคืื™ืŸ ืฉื ืžืฆื ื‘ื• ื•ืขื•ื–ืจ ืœื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ ืืช ื›ืœื™ ื”ื“ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขื•ืจ ื•ืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื–ืจื™ืžืช ื”ื“ื ื”ื›ืœืœื™ืช (ืžืงื•ืจ). ื‘ืชื•ืจื•, ื–ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ื”ืคื—ืชืช ืžืจืื” ื”ืฆืœื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืก.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ื ื’ื“ ืฆืœื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืก, ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื”ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืคื™ืœื™ื ื’ ืขืœ ื‘ืกื™ืก ืงืคื”, ืืฉืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืง ืืช ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืื—ื™ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืื ื™ ืื•ื”ื‘ืช ืืช ืคื™ืœื™ื ื’ ื”ืงืคื” ืฉืœ ืคืจื ืง ื‘ื•ื“ื™, ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืืช ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”.

ืขื•ื“ ืขืœ ื›ืš ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš.

ื”ืจื’ืขื”

ื”ืงืคื” ืืžื ื ื™ื“ื•ืข ื‘ื”ืฉืคืขื•ืชื™ื• ื”ืžืขื•ืจืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ, ืืš ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื ื•ื’ืข ืœืขื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืกืคืง ื“ื•ื•ืงื ืืช ื”ืืคืงื˜ ื”ื”ืคื•ืš ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืžื•ื—ืœ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืงื•ืžื™, ื–ืืช ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื ื•ื’ื“ื™ ื”ื—ืžืฆื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื•.

ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืื ื˜ื™ ืื™ื™ื’โ€™ื™ื ื’

ืžืจื™ื—ืช ืงืคื” ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืขื•ืจ ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ื”ืคื—ืชืช ืžืจืื” ืฉืœ ื›ืชืžื™ ืฉืžืฉ, ืื“ืžื•ืžื™ื•ืช ื•ืงื•ื•ื™ื ื“ืงื™ื. ืœืžืขืฉื”, ืžื—ืงืจ ืื—ื“ (ืžืงื•ืจ) ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืฆื ืžืชืื ื™ืฉื™ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื™ืช ืงืคื” ืœื™ืจื™ื“ื” ื‘ื”ืฉืคืขื•ืช ืื•ืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืขืœ ื”ื–ื“ืงื ื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืจ.

ื•ื™ื˜ืžื™ืŸ B3

ืงืคื” ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ืจ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืฉืœ ื•ื™ื˜ืžื™ืŸ B3 (ื ื™ืืฆื™ืŸ), ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืคื™ืจื•ืง ืฉืœ ืชืจื›ื•ื‘ืช ื‘ื• ื”ื ืงืจืืช ื˜ืจื™ื’ื•ื ืœื™ืŸ. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื˜ืจื™ื’ื•ื ืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืคืจืง ื•ื”ื•ืคืš ืœื ื™ืืฆื™ืŸ ืจืง ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืคื•ืœื™ ื”ืงืคื” ื ื™ืฆืœื™ื. ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืงืจืŸ ืœืกืจื˜ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืจ, ื ื™ืืฆื™ืŸ ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ื‘ืžื ื™ืขืช ืกืจื˜ืŸ ืขื•ืจ ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืžื ื•ืข ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœื™ ืขื•ืจ ืื—ืจื™ื.

ื”ืคื—ืชืช ื“ืœืงื•ืช ื•ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืืงื ื”

ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื™ื—ืก ื”ืฉืคืขื•ืช ืื ื˜ื™-ื“ืœืงืชื™ื•ืช ืœื—ื•ืžืฆื” ื›ืœื•ืจื•ื’ื ื™ืช (CGA) ื”ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืงืคื”. ื”ื—ื•ืžืฆื” ื”ื–ื• ืงืฉื•ืจื” ื’ื ืœื”ืคื—ืชืช ืชื•ืคืขื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืคืจ-ืคื™ื’ืžื ื˜ืฆื™ื” ืฉื•ื ื•ืช.

ืœ-CGA ื‘ืงืคื” ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืชื›ื•ื ื•ืช ืื ื˜ื™ ื“ืœืงืชื™ื•ืช ื•ืื ื˜ื™-ื‘ืงื˜ืจื™ืืœื™ื•ืช. ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขื ืชื›ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืคื™ืœื™ื ื’ ืฉืœ ื”ืงืคื”, ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืงืฉื•ืจ ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืืงื ื”.

โ€œืฉืงื™ื•ืชโ€ ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ื™ื

ืชื›ื•ืœืช ื”ืงืคืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ื–ืจ ืœื”ืจื—ื‘ืช ื›ืœื™ ื”ื“ื ื”ืคื›ื” ืืช ื”ืงืคื” ืœืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืžืคืชื— ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื™ื ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืื•ืชื ืขื™ื’ื•ืœื™ื ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ื™ื.

ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื ื•ืกืคืช: 12 ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืœื”ืขืœื™ื ืขื™ื’ื•ืœื™ื ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ื™ื

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืงืคื” ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘-โ€œืฉืงื™ื•ืชโ€ ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ื™ื:

  • ืขืจื‘ื‘ื™ ื—ืฆื™ ื›ืคื™ืช ืฉืœ ืงืคื” ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื—ืฆื™ ื›ืคื™ืช ืฉืœ ืฉืžืŸ ื–ื™ืช. ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื™ ื›ืžื” ื˜ื™ืคื•ืช ืžื™ื ืœื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืขื™ืกื” ืงื˜ื ื”.
  • ืžืจื—ื™ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ื™ื ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœืฉืคืฉืฃ.
  • ื”ืฉืื™ืจื™ ืืช ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ืœืžืฉืš ื—ืžืฉ ืขื“ ืขืฉืจ ื“ืงื•ืช.
  • ืฉื˜ืคื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืื• ื ื’ื‘ื™ ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžืกื›ื” ื‘ืžื˜ืœื™ืช ืจื›ื”.

ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžืฉ

ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืื•ืชื ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืื ื˜ื™ ืื™ื™ื’โ€™ื™ื ื’ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืคื” ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืฉืกื•ื‘ืœ ืžื›ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžืฉ. ื”ืžืคืชื— ื›ืืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื‘ืฆืข ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืžืจื’ื™ืข ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืœืขื•ืจ ืคื’ื•ืข, ื•ืœื ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืจื’ื™ืœ ื›ืžื• ืžืกื›ื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืื• ืคื™ืœื™ื ื’.

ืœื”ื›ื ืช ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืขืœ ื‘ืกื™ืก ืงืคื” ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžืฉ:

  • ื”ื›ื™ื ื™ ื›ื•ืก ืงืคื” ื˜ืจื™. ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ, ื“ืœืœื™ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืžื™ื ืงืจื™ื.
  • ื”ื ื™ื—ื™ ืžื˜ืœื™ืช ืจื›ื” ืื• ืžื’ื‘ืช ื ื™ื™ืจ ื‘ืžืฉืงื” ื•ืกื—ื˜ื™ ืืช ื”ืขื•ื“ืคื™ื.
  • ื˜ืคื—ื™ ืืช ื”ื‘ื“ ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืขืœ ืื–ื•ืจื™ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื”ืคื’ื•ืขื™ื.
  • ื—ื–ืจื™ ืขืœ ื”ืคืขื•ืœื” ืžืกืคืจ ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืขื“ ืฉื”ืื“ืžื•ืžื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ื ืคื™ื—ื•ืช ืžืชื—ื™ืœื•ืช ืœื”ืชืคื•ื’ื’.

ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื” ืœืคื ื™ื โ€“ ืžืชื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืชื™

ื™ืฉื ืŸ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœื”ื›ื ืช ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื” ื‘ื™ืชื™ืช. ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื™ื ืœืขืจื‘ื‘ ื’ืจื’ื™ืจื™ ืงืคื” ืขื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืœื-ืงื•ืžื“ื•ื’ื ื™ (ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืื—ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืกืชื•ื ืœืš ืืช ื”ื ืงื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื•ืช). ื”ืžืชื›ื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ ืžืชื‘ืฆืข ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืฉืžืŸ ื–ื™ืช ื•ื”ื•ื:

  • ืขืจื‘ื‘ื™ ื™ื—ื“ ืฉืžืŸ ื–ื™ืช ื•ืงืคื” ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืฉื•ื•ื”.
  • ืžืจื—ื™ ืขืœ ื”ืคื ื™ื ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื” ืžืขื’ืœื™ืช.
  • ื”ืฉืื™ืจื™ ืืช ื”ืžืกื›ื” ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ 15 ืœ-60 ื“ืงื•ืช.
  • ืฉื˜ืคื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ื—ืžื™ื, ื•ื—ื–ืจื™ ืขืœ ื”ืคืขื•ืœื” ืขื“ ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข.

ืžื ื’ื“, ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืขื•ื“ ื•ืจื™ืืฆื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืœืžืกื™ื›ืช ื”ืงืคื”, ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื โ€“ ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœื•.

ืœืขื•ืจ ื–ื•ื”ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื” ื•ื—ืœื‘

ื™ืฉ ืœืขืจื‘ื‘ ืืช ื”ืงืคื” ื”ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื—ืœื‘ ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืฉื•ื•ื”.

ืžืกื›ื” ื–ื• ื›ื•ืœืœืช ืืช ื”ืงืคืื™ืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขื ื—ื•ืžืฆืช ื—ืœื‘ (ื”ืงื™ื™ืžืช ื‘ื—ืœื‘) ื•ืขื•ื–ืจืช ืœืงืœืฃ ื•ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ื–ื™ื”ื•ืžื™ื ืžื”ืขื•ืจ. ื”ืชื•ืฆืื” ื”ื™ื ืขื•ืจ ื–ื•ื”ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ืœืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื”, ื™ื•ื’ื•ืจื˜ ื•ื›ื•ืจื›ื•ื

ื™ืฉ ืœืขืจื‘ื‘ ืงืคื” ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื™ื•ื’ื•ืจื˜ ื•ื›ื•ืจื›ื•ื ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืฉื•ื•ื”.

ื•ื™ื˜ืžื™ืŸ ื”-C ื‘ื›ื•ืจื›ื•ื ืขื•ื–ืจ ืœื”ื‘ื”ื™ืจ ื›ืชืžื™ื ื›ื”ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืจ ื•ืื™ืœื• ื—ื•ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืืœืคื ื”ื™ื“ืจื•ืงืกื™ (AHA) ื”ืžืฆื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื’ื•ืจื˜ ืžืคื—ื™ืชื•ืช ืืงื ื” ื•ืžื–ื™ื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืขื•ืจ.

ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื—ืฆโ€™ืงื•ื ื™ื โ€“ ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื”, ืงื™ื ืžื•ืŸ ื•ืฉืžืŸ ืงื•ืงื•ืก

ื™ืฉ ืœืขืจื‘ื‘ ื›ืฃ ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ืงืคื” ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื—ืฆื™ ื›ืคื™ืช ืฉืžืŸ ืงื•ืงื•ืก ื•ืจื‘ืข ื›ืคื™ืช ืงื™ื ืžื•ืŸ.

ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื›ื™ืœ ืชื›ื•ื ื•ืช ืื ื˜ื™-ื‘ืงื˜ืจื™ืืœื™ื•ืช, ื”ืงื™ื ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœืื ืฉื™ื ืขื ืขื•ืจ ื”ื ื•ื˜ื” ืœืืงื ื”. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื•, ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืงื•ืก ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื”ื™ืœื—ื ื‘ื–ื™ื”ื•ืžื™ื, ื•ื”ืงืคื” ืžืกื™ืจ ืืช ืชืื™ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื”ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ืœืืงื ื”.

ืงืคื”

ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื ื•ืกืคืช

ืœื ื—ื•ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืžืกื™ื›ืช ืงืคื” ืœืคื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื”ืคืชืจื•ืŸ ืขื‘ื•ืจืš?

ื”ื ื” ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ืžืชื›ื•ื ื™ื ืžื•ืžืœืฆื™ื ืœืžืกื™ื›ื•ืช ืคื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื™ื•ืช ืฉื™ืฆื ืœื ื• ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ โ€“ ืื•ืœื™ ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืชื”ื™ื” ืคืชืจื•ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจืš:

  • ืžืกื›ืช ื—ื™ืžืจ ื™ืจื•ืงย โ€“ ืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืœืขื•ืจ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืจื’ื™ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ืชืื™ ื”ืขื•ืจ, ื”ืจื’ืขื”, ื”ืงื˜ื ืช ื”ื ืงื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื•ืช, ืžืชื™ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ืกื™ืœื•ืง ืจืขืœื™ื ื•ื–ื™ื”ื•ืžื™ื ืžื”ืืคื™ื“ืจืžื™ืก (ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื”ืขื•ืจ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ื ื”).
  • ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืื‘ื•ืงื“ื• ืœืคื ื™ืย โ€“ ืžื•ืžืœืฆืช ืœืขื•ืจ ืจื’ื™ืฉ, ื™ื‘ืฉ ืื• ื ื•ื˜ื” ืœืืงื ื” ื•ืขื•ื–ืจืช ืœืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื’ืžื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ื”ืื˜ืช ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ื”ื–ื“ืงื ื•ืช ืฉืœื•.
  • ืžืกื›ื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืขื ื›ื•ืจื›ื•ื ื•ื“ื‘ืฉย โ€“ ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืขืœ ืฉืขื•ื–ืจืช ื›ืžืขื˜ ืขื ื›ืœ ื‘ืขื™ื™ืช ืขื•ืจ ื•ืžื•ืกื™ืคื” ื–ื•ื”ืจ ื•ืจื›ื•ืช.
  • ืžืกื›ืช ืคืคืื™ื”ย โ€“ ืขื•ื–ืจืช ืœืจื›ืš ืืช ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืื•ืชื• ื—ืœืง ื•ื’ืžื™ืฉ ื™ื•ืชืจ.
  • ืžืกื™ื›ืช ืžืืฆโ€™ื”ย โ€“ ืžื•ืฉืœืžืช ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื“ืœืงื•ืช ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ, ืžืœื—ืžื” ื‘ืืงื ื”, ื”ื‘ื”ืจืช ื”ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ืืœืกื˜ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืจ.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื”

ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ ืœื ื™ื•ืฆื’ ื‘ืืชืจ.