ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ: ื›ืš ืชื˜ืคืœื™ ื‘ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ ื”ื ื’ืจื ืžืขื’ื™ืœื™ื

ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ

ื›ืฉืืช ืขื•ืฉื” ืขื’ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืื•ื–ื ื™ื™ื โ€“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ื–ื” ื‘ืžื›ื•ืŸ ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ืื• ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืŸ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื‘ืงื ื™ื•ืŸ โ€“ ืืช ืืžื•ืจื” (ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื”) ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฉ ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื ื™ืงื•ื‘ ืขืœ ืœืžืช ืœืžื ื•ืข ื–ื™ื”ื•ื (ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ). ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื›ืš, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื•ื•ื“ื ืฉื”ืคื™ืจืกืจ (ื–ื” ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืืช ื”ื ื™ืงื•ื‘ ื‘ืื•ื–ื ื™ื™ื) ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ืจืง ื‘ื›ืœื™ื ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ื”ื™ื’ื™ื™ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื•ืช.

ืื‘ืœ ืื ื”ื•ื ืœื ืฉื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื”ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืงื•ืœ (ืžื” ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงืจื•ืช), ืื• ืฉืืช ืžื–ืœื–ืœืช ื•ืœื ืžืงืคื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ื”ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ืฉืงื™ื‘ืœืช (ื•ื’ื ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงืจื•ืช, ืžื›ื™ืจื” ืื•ืชืš) โ€“ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉืชืกื‘ืœื™ ืžื–ื™ื”ื•ื. ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืžื” ืœื”ื™ื‘ื”ืœ: ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื• ื“ื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ื•ืœืœื ืกื™ื‘ื•ื›ื™ื.

ืื™ืš ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืืช ื–ื”? ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื™ ืœืงืจื•ื.

ืื™ืš ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ

ืชืจืื™, ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฉืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื”ื•ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ืคืฆืข ืคืชื•ื—. ืœื ื™ืงื•ื‘ ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืš ื”ืื•ื–ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืœื•ืงื— ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉื” ืขื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื. ืœืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืกื—ื•ืก (ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ืงืฉื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ื–ืŸ) ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืœื•ืงื— ื™ื•ืชืจ ื–ืžืŸ ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื, ื•ื”ื•ื ื’ื ื ื•ื˜ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื. ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืžืกืคืจ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื–ื“ื”ื โ€“ ื•ื–ื” ืœื ืžืฉื ื” ืื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืฃ, ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ ืื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ โ€“ ืžื”ืŸ ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื–ื”ืจ.

ื›ืœ ื‘ืงื˜ืจื™ื” ืฉื ืฉืืจืช ืœื–ืžืŸ ืžื” ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืคื•ืš ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื. ืื ืืช ื ื•ื’ืขืช ื‘ืขื’ื™ืœ ืฉืœืš ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืžืœื•ื›ืœื›ื•ืช ืื• ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ืœื ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื™ื, ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื”ื™ื ืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœื’ืžืจื™ ืกื‘ื™ืจื”. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืื ื”ืขื’ื™ืœื™ื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืื•ื–ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฆืžื•ื“ ืžื“ื™ ื•ืœื ืžืืคืฉืจื™ื ืœืคืฆืข ืžืกืคื™ืง ืžืจื—ื‘ ืœื ืฉื•ื ื•ืœื”ื‘ืจื™ื, ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืคืชื— ื–ื™ื”ื•ื. ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, โ€œืžืฉื—ืงโ€ ืขื ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ, ืฉืคืฉื•ืฃ ืฉืœื• ืขื ื”ืขื•ืจ ืื• ื—ืกืคื•ืก ืžืกื•ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื˜ื— ืฉืœื• โ€“ ื›ื•ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื’ื™ืจื•ื™ ื‘ืขื•ืจ ื•ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื.

ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ โ€“ ื”ืขื’ื™ืœื™ื ืขืฆืžื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื™ื, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืคืขื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืืช ืฉืžื” ืื•ืชื.

ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื–ื”ื” ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ?

ื“ื™ ืงืœ ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ ื ื’ื•ืขื”. ื”ืกื™ืžืคื˜ื•ืžื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื›ืœื•ืœ:

  • ื”ืคืจืฉื” ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื”, ืžื•ื’ืœืชื™ืช.
  • ื ืคื™ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื.
  • ืื“ืžื•ืžื™ื•ืช.
  • ื›ืื‘ ืื• ืจื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ืžืชืžืฉื›ื™ื.
  • ื’ื™ืจื•ื“ ื•ื”ืจื’ืฉื” ืฉืœ โ€œืฉื•ืจืฃโ€.

ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื‘ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ

ื›ืœ ืขื•ื“ ื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืฉืœืš ืงืœ, ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื™ ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื• ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืช. ืื ืขื‘ืจืช ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืกื—ื•ืก ืฉื ืจืื” ืžื–ื•ื”ื, ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœืคื ื•ืช ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืจืคื•ืื™ ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืกื•ื’ ื”ื–ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืงืฉื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื•ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ื˜ื™ืงื” ื“ืจืš ื”ืคื”. ื–ื™ื”ื•ืžื™ื ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ื™ื ื‘ืกื—ื•ืก ืืคื™ืœื• ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ืืฉืคื•ื–.

ืื‘ืœ ืื ื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืงืœ, ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื• ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ื‘ืื”:

  1. ืฉื˜ืคื™ ืืช ื”ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืช ื ื•ื’ืขืช ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื• ื‘ืขื’ื™ืœ.
  2. ื ืงื™ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืžื™ ืžืœื— ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื. ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืชืžื™ืกื” ืžื•ื›ื ื” ืžืจืืฉ (ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžืฆื•ื ื›ืžื” ื›ืืœื• ื‘ืจืฉืช) ืื• ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœืขืจื‘ื‘ ืจื‘ืข ื›ืคื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžืœื— ื™ื ืจื’ื™ืœ ืขื 250 ืžโ€ืœ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ืžื–ื•ืงืงื™ื.
  3. ืืœ ืชืฉืชืžืฉื™ ื‘ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ, ืžื™ ื—ืžืฆืŸ ืื• ืžืฉื—ื•ืช ืื ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ื˜ื™ื•ืช โ€“ ื”ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื’ืจื•ืช ืืช ื”ืขื•ืจ ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืœื”ืื˜ ืืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืจื™ืคื•ื™.
  4. ืืœ ืชืกื™ืจื™ ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ โ€“ ื–ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื—ื•ืจ ืœื”ื™ืกื’ืจ (ื•ืœืœื›ื•ื“ ืืช ื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืคื ื™ื).
  5. ื ืงื™ ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืžืฉื ื™ ืฆื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืš ื”ืื•ื–ืŸ, ื•ื ื’ื‘ื™ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืขื ืžื’ื‘ื•ื ื™ ื ื™ื™ืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื˜ืคื™ื—ื•ืช ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช (ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืื—ืจื™ื”ื ืกื™ื‘ื™ื).

ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ, ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืžืฉื™ืš ื‘ืฉื’ืจืช ื”ื ื™ืงื™ื•ืŸ ืœืžืฉืš ืคืขืžื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืขื“ ืฉื”ืžืงื•ื ืžื‘ืจื™ื ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ. ื–ื›ืจื™, ืœื ื™ืงื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืš ื”ืื•ื–ืŸ ืœื•ืงื— ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉื” ืขื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืขื“ ืœื”ื—ืœืžื”, ื•ืฉื’ืจืช ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื”ื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ื”ื–ื•.

ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืขื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ

ืžืชื™ ืœืคื ื•ืช ืœืจื•ืคื

ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืกืคืง ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืื ืืช ืจื•ืื” ืืช ืื—ืช ืžื”ืชื•ืคืขื•ืช ื”ื‘ืื•ืช, ืคื ื™ ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืจืคื•ืื™:

  • ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ืœื ื–ื–.
  • ืื‘ื–ื ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฅ ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืฉืœืš.
  • ื”ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ืœื ืžืฉืชืคืจืช ืขื ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื.
  • ืืช ืžืคืชื—ืช ื—ื•ื.
  • ื”ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ืฆื•ืจืช ืื“ืžื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืื• ื’ื™ืจื•ื™ ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืžืชืคืฉื˜ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืžืงื•ื ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’.

ืื™ืš ืœืžื ื•ืข ืื™ื ืคืงืฆื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื–ืŸ

ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื›ื™ ืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืžื ื•ืข ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื ืœื•ื•ื“ื ืฉื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ืžื‘ื•ืฆืข ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืฉ ืžืงืฆื•ืข. ืืœ ืชืขืฉื™ ืืช ื–ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืช, ื•ื”ืงืคื™ื“ื™ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื ื”ืœื™ ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื•ื”ื—ื™ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืคื™ืจืกืจ ืฉื‘ื—ืจืช. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื•ื“ืื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ืื™ืชื ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื‘ื“ ื”ื ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื™ื, ื•ืฉื™ืžื™ ืœื‘ ืฉื”ืขื’ื™ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ื•ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืžืืจื–ื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ื•ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ืช.

ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืขืฉื™ืช ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’, ื”ืงืคื™ื“ื™ ืœื ืงื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืคืขืžื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื—ื•ืžืจ ืฉื˜ื™ืคื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืื• ืžื™ ืžืœื—. ืืœ โ€œืชืฉื—ืงื™โ€ ื•ืชืกื•ื‘ื‘ื™ ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืœืš, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ื˜ืจืื•ืžื” ื‘ืขื•ืจ ื•ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื. ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื ืงื•ืช ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื’ื ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื”ืกื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืขื’ื™ืœ.

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ, ื ื™ืงื•ื‘ ื”ืื•ื–ื ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืคืขื•ืœื” ืฉื’ื•ืจืจืช ื›ืžื” ืจื’ืขื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืื‘ ื‘ืชืžื•ืจื” ืœื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืงืฆืช ืกื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื•ื’ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืœืชื ื•ื›ื™ ื”ืื•ื–ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš. ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื–ื” ืžืฉื”ื• ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงืจื•ืช, ืื‘ืœ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืžื”ื™ืจ ื•ื ื—ื•ืฉ ืžื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื–ืจื™ื– ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืขื ืคื—ื•ืช ืกื™ื‘ื•ื›ื™ื.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื”

ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ ืœื ื™ื•ืฆื’ ื‘ืืชืจ. ืฉื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื *